What is the difference between oil for air-cooled engines and lubricants operating in engines where the operating temperature is reduced by using water-soluble coolers? The answer to this question should be sought in the comparison of performance and structural features of the two units.
When the fuel is burned in the engine cylinders, the operating temperature can rise up to 2000°C. Excessive overheating of the motor causes a loss of power, an increase in the fuel consumption of lubricants and jamming of touching parts.
To stabilize the thermal regime within the permissible limits, a cooling system is used, which can be of the following types:
All modern trucks and cars are equipped with liquid and combined systems.
Air is used for four-stroke gasoline and diesel engines. Such units are equipped with motorcycles, small-scale mechanization (lawn mowers, tillers, mini-tractors), motor boats.
Features of operation of air-cooled ice
Motors with air cooling system work in more extreme conditions than the internal combustion engine, equipped with water systems. The optimum operating temperature of the antifreeze is in the range of 85-95°C (maximum – 120°C). The thermal range of the air-cooled engine is 130-150°C.
Accordingly, fuels and lubricants intended for liquid systems are not suitable for engines operating under the air scheme. Oil for such devices is endowed with a special package of modifiers that meet extreme operating conditions, which, regardless of the model of the unit, must provide the following characteristics:
- optimum viscosity coefficient at high thermal loads;
- high wear-resistant, non-stick and anti-friction properties;
- heat resistance;
- thermal conductivity;
- resistance to oxidative reactions, corrosion;
- guaranteed engine start in winter.
The minimum amount of improving additives should be 20-25%. The amount of each reagent is determined empirically based on the performance of the engine.
On powerful automobile engines and when using equipment in regions with high temperature indicators, the lubrication system is additionally equipped with an oil radiator.
Operating conditions of air-cooled units impose certain requirements on the quality and composition of lubricating fluids. First of all, the mixture should ensure the formation of a strong oil film in the friction zones, and ensure its stable condition at high temperatures.
In addition, the emulsions must have an optimum viscosity to ensure rapid engine start and instantaneous delivery of the lubricating fluid to the contact points of the contacting parts.
When choosing a lubricant for air-cooled motors, the following characteristics must be considered:
- Mineral oils work well with leaded gasoline. They reduce the risk of carbon deposits and provide the recommended purity of exhaust emissions.
- semi-Synthetic oils are solutions of mineral and synthetic components mixed in certain proportions.
- Synthetic products are designed for high-power engines operating in the area of high mechanical loads. They have a low viscosity coefficient and high mobility.
Durable oil film, created by synthetics, effectively protects rubbing parts from scoring and premature wear.
Modern industry produces a sufficient number of grades of lubricating fluids for air-cooled motors. Quality of mixes at each producer can differ as development of structure of substances is made taking into account design features of units, and also in compliance with conditions of their operation.
Therefore, when buying, you should be guided by the passport of the device and the advice of the seller–consultant. In addition, it is necessary to purchase liquids from reliable suppliers selling lubricants from well-known manufacturers.
Oil for four-stroke air-cooled motors
Special lubricant designed for diesel or petrol engine block. The composition is made on the basis of polyalphaolefin synthetic components with the addition of modifying additives.
Properly structured chain improving additives has allowed to obtain a liquid oil with high oxidation properties, resistant to high mechanical loads and extreme temperatures.
4TD SAE 30 standard
Mineral oils that contribute to long-term and stable operation of the unit in different climatic zones. The temperature range is from minus 10 to plus 45°C.
4TD Premium SAE 10W–30
Semi-synthetic multigrade with high anti-corrosion, anti-oxidation and anti-seize properties. Recommended for use in the temperature range from -25 to +40°C.
4TD Ultra SAE 5W–30
Synthetics made on the basis of frost-resistant compositions. It is recommended for use in low-temperature regions (-38…+50°C), provides a comfortable start and rapid heating of the motor.
Proper selection of oils for engines with air cooling system will help to stabilize the mechanisms and increase their service life.